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Literature Cited

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Ashbrook, C. and H.J. Fuss. 1996.  Hatchery operations plans and performance summaries.  Coast.  Volume II, No. 2.  Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Hatcheries Program, Olympia, WA.

Berejikian, B., D. VanDoornik, E. Volk, T. Johnson, J. Lee, J. Atkins and R. Endicott.  2002. Evaluation of the conservation hatchery rearing and release strategies for steelhead recovery in the Hamma Hamma River.  Annual Report:  June 30, 2002. IAC Grant #01-042.

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Cooper, R. and T. H. Johnson.  1992.  Trends in steelhead abundance in Washington and along the Pacific Coast of North America.  Wash. Dept. of Wildlife, Fisheries Management Division.  Rept. No. 92-20.

Crain, P.V. 2001.  Summary of survey activities and escapement estimates for Strait of Juan de Fuca coho, 1999-2000 brood year.  A report completed through funding provided by the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission through U.S./Canada Salmon Treaty Funds and NMFS Salmon Recovery Funding.  Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, Port Angeles, WA.

Devore. J. 1987. Cowlitz River salmon investigations program:  analysis of the 1983-1985 Cowlitz runs of fall chinook and coho salmon.  WDF Progress Report #254.

Gibbons, R.G., P.K.J. Hahn and T.H. Johnson.  1985.  Methodology for determining MSH steelhead spawning escapement requirements.  Washington State Game Department, Fisheries Management Division.  Report #85-11.  Olympia, WA.

Gustafson, R.G., T.C. Wainwright, G.A.Winans, F.W. Waknitz, L.T. Parker and R.S. Waples. 1997.  Status review of sockeye salmon from Washington and Oregon.  National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, U.S. Department of Commerce and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-33.  Seattle, WA.

Gustafson, R.G. and Winans, G.A. 1999. Distribution and population genetic structure of river- and sea-type sockeye salmon in western North America.  Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8: 181-193.

Harlan, K. 1999.  Washington Columbia River and tributary stream survey sampling results, 1997.  Columbia River Progress Report 99-09.  Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Vancouver, WA.

Hendry, A. P. 1995. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Washington:  an investigation of ancestral origins, population differentiation and local adaptation.  Master’s thesis.  University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Hymer, J. 1997. Results of studies on chinook spawning in the mainstem Columbia River below Bonneville Dam.  WDFW.  Columbia River Progress Report 97-9.  Battle Ground, WA.

Kane, T.R. 1993. An evaluation of fall chinook salmon production at Makah National Fish Hatchery.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, WWFRO unpublished report.

Koenings, J.P. and Williams, T. 2002. March 14, 2002 letter to William Ruckleshaus (Puget Sound Salmon Forum Development Committee) presenting recovery planning targets for Snohomish River chinook stocks.

Koenings, J.P. (WDFW), L. Loomis ( Swinomish Tribe), D. Maloney (Upper Skagit Tribe) and L. Joseph (Sauk-Suiattle Tribe).  2002.  March 14, 2002 letter to William Ruckleshaus (Puget Sound Salmon Forum Development Committee) presenting recovery planning targets for Skagit River chinook stocks.

Koenings, J.P., Williams, T. (Tulalip Tribes) and E. Goodridge, Sr. (Stillaguamish Tribe). 2002.  March 14, 2002 letter to William Ruckleshaus (Puget Sound Salmon Forum Development Committee) presenting recovery planning targets for Stillaguamish River chinook stocks.

LeClair, L. 1997.  August 3 memo to J. Hymer, WDFW, regarding Columbia River and coastal chum populations.  WDFW, Genetics Unit.  Olympia, WA.

LeClair, L.  1999.  November 2 memo to J. Hard (NMFS) and L. Krasnow (NMFS) regarding lower Columbia River chum salmon.

Lestelle, L.C., L.E. Mobrand, J.A. Lichatowich and T.S. Vogel. 1996.  Applied ecosystem analysis – a primer.  U.S. Dept of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR.

Makah Fisheries Management. 2000. Lake Ozette sockeye hatchery and genetic management plan.  Biological assessment.  Section 7 consultation.  Prepared for Bureau of Indian Affairs, October 23, 2000.  Neah Bay, WA.

Marshall, A. 1994.  3 March memo to Billy Connor (USFWS) and Lee Blankenship (WDF) regarding the genetic analysis of the 1993 Snake River juvenile chinook out-migrant sample.  WDF. Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A. 1994.  22 March memo to Gary Winans (NMFS) regarding cluster analysis of Columbia Basin chinook populations.  WDFW, Fish Program, Science Division, Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A.R.1994. Memo to Lower Elwha Tribe regarding the genetic analysis of the 1993 Snake River juvenile chinook out-migrant sample.  WDFW.  Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A. 1997.  30 May memo to Carol Smith (WDFW) regarding Skykomish River chinook genetic baseline analyses.  WDFW.  Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A. 1998.  February 9 memo to Kelly Harlan (WDFW) regarding genetic analyses of mainstem Columbia River, below Bonneville Dam, chinook spawners.  WDFW.  Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A.R. 1999. 4 May memo to T. Johnson (WDFW), T. Flint (WDFW), D. Collins (WDFW), B. Sanford (WDFW), R. Eltrich (WDFW), E. Jouper (WDFW), D. Poon (NMFS), J. Meyers (NMFS), C. Weller (Point No Point Treaty Council), N. Lampsakis (Point No Point Treaty Council), D. Herrera (Skokomish Tribe) and K. Currens (Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission) regarding genetic analysis of 1998 Skokomish River chinook samples.  WDFW. Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A.R. 2000.  Genetic analysis of Cottage Lake Creek/Bear Creek and Issaquah Creek naturally spawning fall-run chinook.  WDFW, Fish Program, Science Division.  Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A. 2000.  31 May memo to Distribution list regarding genetic analyses of 1999  Hood Canal area chinook samples. WDFW, Fish Program, Science Division.  Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A. 2002.  16 August memo to Ann Blakley (WDFW) and Amilee Wilson (WDFW) regarding genetic analyses of selected Washington chinook stocks.  WDFW.  Olympia.

Marshall, A., C. Smith, R. Brix, W. Dammers, J. Hymer and L. LaVoy. 1995.  Genetic diversity units and major ancestral lineages for chinook salmon in Washington.  Pages D1-D62 in C.B. Busack and J.B. Shaklee, eds., Genetic diversity units and major ancestral lineages of salmonid fishes in Washington.  WDFW. Fish Management Program, Resource Assessment Division.  Olympia, WA.

Marshall, A. and C. Busack. 1994. Memorandum to Sewall Young (WDFW) regarding proposed 1994 chinook baseline collections. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Olympia, WA.

McElhany, P., M.H. Ruckelshaus, M.J. Ford, T.C. Wainwright and E.P. Bjorkstedt. 2000. Viable salmonid populations and the recovery of evolutionarily significant units.  U.S. Dept Commer., NOAA Technical Memo.  NMFS-NWFSC-42.

Mobrand, L.E., J.A. Lichatowich, L.C. Lestelle and T.S. Vogel. 1997.  An approach to describing ecosystem performance “through the eyes of salmon”.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 2964-2973.

Mobrand Biometrics. 2002. “Ecosystem diagnosis and treatment”.  www.mobrand.com/edtinfo.htm.

Myers, J.M., R.G. Kope, G.J. Bryant, D. Teel, L.J. Lierheimer, T.C. Wainwright, W.S. Grant, F.W. Waknitz, K. Neely, S.T. Lindley, and R.S. Waples. 1998.  Status review of chinook salmon from Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California.  U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-35.

Myers, J., C. Busack, D. Rawding and A. Marshall.  2002.  Identifying historical populations of chinook and chum salmon and steelhead within the lower Columbia River and upper Willamette River evolutionarily significant units.  Co-manager review draft.  WDFW. Olympia, WA.

NCRT (Nisqually Chinook Recovery Team). 2001.  Nisqually chinook recovery plan.  Nisqually Tribe.  Nisqually Natural Resource Center, 12501 Yelm Highway SE, Olympia WA 98513.

NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 1996. Making Endangered Species Act determinations of effect for individual or grouped actions at the watershed scale.  National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Habitat Conservation Branch.

Phelps, S., J. Uehara, D. Hendrick, J. Hymer, A. Blakley and R. Brix. 1995. Genetic diversity units and major ancestral lineages for chum salmon in Washington.   Pages C1-C55 in C.B. Busack and J.B. Shaklee, eds., Genetic diversity units and major ancestral lineages of salmonid fishes in Washington.  WDFW. Fish Management Program, Resource Assessment Division.  Olympia, WA.

Phelps, S.R., S. Leider, P. Hulett, B. Baker and T. Johnson. 1997.  Genetic analysis of Washington steelhead:  preliminary results of incorporating 36 new collections from 1995 and 1996.  WDFW.  Progress Report.  WDFW.  Olympia, WA.

Point No Point Treaty Council (PNPTC), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).  1994. Hood Canal natural coho MSH escapement estimate and escapement goals.  PNPTC. Kingston, WA.

PSIT (Puget Sound Indian Tribes) and WDFW (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife).  2001.  Puget Sound comprehensive chinook management plan:  harvest management component.  March 23, 2001.  Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission.  Olympia, WA.

Puget Sound TRT (Technical Recovery Team). 2002.  Independent populations of chinook salmon in Puget Sound.  Puget Sound TRT final draft, 8 April, 2002.  National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center.  Seattle.

Reisenbichler, R. R., and S. R. Phelps. 1989. Genetic variation in steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) from the North Coast of Washington. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:66-73.

Ricker, W.E. 1972. Hereditary and environmental factors affecting certain salmonid populations. Pages 19-160  in Simon, R,C. and P.A. Larkin (eds.) The Stock Concept in Pacific Salmon.  MacMillian Lectures in Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver B.C.

Royal, L. 1932. Grays Harbor Survey Report-Rivers and Streams. WDF unpublished stream survey report.

Ryder, O.A. 1986. Species conservation and systematics:  the dilemma of subspecies.  Trends Ecol. Evol. 1: 9-10.

Shaklee, J.B. 2001.  Memo to Ann Blakley (WDFW), Jim Ames (WDFW) and Don Hendrick (WDFW) regarding an update of genetic information for SaSI pink salmon stocks. WDFW.  Olympia. WA. 

Shaklee, J.B., D.C. Klaybor, S. Young and B. White.  1991.  Genetic stock analysis of odd-year pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, Walbaum, from Washington and British Columbia and potential mixed-stock fisheries applications.  J. Fish. Biol. 39 (Supplement A): 21-34.

Shaklee, J.B., J. Ames and L. LaVoy. 1996.  Genetic diversity units and major ancestral lineages for sockeye salmon in Washington.  WDFW, Fish Management Program, Resource Assessment Division.  Olympia, WA.

Shaklee, J. B., S. F. Young, M. J. Crewson, M. J. Haggerty and A. C. Ritchie. 2001. Genetic characterization of Lake Ozette sockeye salmon for enhancement recovery strategies. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Olympia, WA.

Shaklee, J.B. and S.F. Young.  (In WDFW review)  An assessment of the current status of White River (Puyallup Basin) spring chinook based on the analysis of microsatellite DNA and historical patterns of run timing.  WDFW, Genetics Unit. Olympia, WA.

Shaklee, J.B. and S.F. Young. 2000a.  March 1 memo to Glen Mendel (WDFW) and Mark Schuck (WDFW) regarding results of initial DNA analysis of Tucannon River and Lyons Ferry Hatchery stock steelhead collections.  WDFW, Genetics Unit.  Olympia, WA.

Shaklee, J.B. and S.F. Young. 2000b.  February 9 memo to Mark Schuck (WDFW) and Steve Martin (WDFW) regarding results of initial DNA analysis of Grande Ronde steelhead collections.  WDFW, Genetics Unit.  Olympia, WA.

Shaklee, J.B., S.F. Young, M.J. Crewson, M.J. Haggerty and A.C. Ritchie.  2001.  Genetic characterization of Lake Ozette sockeye salmon for enhancement and recovery strategies.  WDFW, Genetics Unit. Olympia, WA.

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WDFW (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and WWTIT (Western Washington Treaty Indian Tribes). 1994.  1992 Washington state salmon and steelhead stock inventory.  Appendix One.  Puget Sound Stocks.  North Puget Sound Volume.  WDFW.  Olympia, WA.

WDFW (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife) and WWTIT (Western Washington Treaty Indian Tribes).1994. 1992 Washington State salmon and steelhead stock inventory.  Appendix One.  Puget Sound Stocks.  Hood Canal and Strait of Juan de Fuca volume.  WDFW, Olympia, WA. 

Winans, G.A., P. B. Aebersold and R.S. Waples. 1996.  Allozyme variability of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Pacific Northwest, with special consideration to populations of Redfish Lake, Idaho.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 125: 645-663.

Young, S.F and J.B. Shaklee. 2000. Non-lethal stock-of -origin assignment of Nooksack basin salmon smolts using microsatellite DNA markers.  Phase 1.  Genetics Unit, WDFW.  Olympia, WA.

Young, S.F. and J.B. Shaklee.  2002.  DNA characterization of Nooksack River chinook salmon stocks and stock-of-origin assignment of outmigrating smolts from 1999 and 2000.  Genetics Unit, WDFW.  Olympia, WA.