This ecological system of the northern Rocky Mountains is found at lower montane to foothill elevations in the mountains and large valleys of northeastern Wyoming and western Montana, west through Idaho into the Blue Mountains of Oregon, and north into the Okanagan and Fraser plateaus of British Columbia and the Canadian Rockies. They also occur to the east in the central Montana mountain "islands," foothills, as well as the Rocky Mountain Front and Big and Little Belt ranges. These grasslands are floristically similar to Inter-Mountain Basins Big Sagebrush Steppe (CES304.778), Columbia Basin Foothill and Canyon Dry Grassland (CES304.993), and Columbia Basin Palouse Prairie (CES304.792), but are defined by shorter summers, colder winters, and young soils derived from recent glacial and alluvial material. These northern lower montane and valley grasslands represent a shift in the precipitation regime from summer monsoons and cold snowy winters found in the southern Rockies to predominantly dry summers and winter precipitation. In the eastern portion of its range in Montana, winter precipitation is replaced by a huge spring peak in precipitation. They are found at elevations from 300 to 1650 m, ranging from small meadows to large open parks surrounded by conifers in the lower montane, to extensive foothill and valley grasslands below the lower treeline. Many of these valleys may have been primarily sage-steppe with patches of grassland in the past, but because of land-use history post-settlement (herbicide, grazing, fire suppression, pasturing, etc.), they have been converted to grassland-dominated areas. Soils are relatively deep, fine-textured, often with coarse fragments, and non-saline, often with a microphytic crust. The most important species are cool-season perennial bunch grasses and forbs (>25% cover), sometimes with a sparse (<10% cover) shrub layer. Pseudoroegneria spicata, Festuca campestris, Festuca idahoensis, or Hesperostipa comata commonly dominate sites on all aspects of level to moderate slopes and on certain steep slopes with a variety of other grasses, such as Achnatherum hymenoides, Achnatherum richardsonii, Hesperostipa curtiseta, Koeleria macrantha, Leymus cinereus, Elymus trachycaulus, Bromus inermis ssp. pumpellianus (= Bromus pumpellianus), Achnatherum occidentale (= Stipa occidentalis), Pascopyrum smithii, and other graminoids such as Carex filifolia and Danthonia intermedia. Other grassland species include Opuntia fragilis, Artemisia frigida, Carex petasata, Antennaria spp., and Selaginella densa. Important exotic grasses include Phleum pratense, Bromus inermis, and Poa pratensis. Shrub species may be scattered, including Amelanchier alnifolia, Rosa spp., Symphoricarpos spp., Juniperus communis, Artemisia tridentata, and in Wyoming Artemisia tripartita ssp. rupicola. Common associated forbs include Geum triflorum, Galium boreale, Campanula rotundifolia, Antennaria microphylla, Geranium viscosissimum, and Potentilla gracilis. A soil crust of lichen covers almost all open soil between clumps of grasses; Cladonia and Peltigera are the most common lichens. Unvegetated mineral soil is commonly found between clumps of grass and the lichen cover. The fire regime of this ecological system maintains a grassland due to rapid fire return that retards shrub invasion or landscape isolation and fragmentation that limits seed dispersal of native shrub species. Fire frequency is presumed to be less than 20 years. These are extensive grasslands, not grass-dominated patches within the sagebrush shrub steppe ecological system. Festuca campestris is easily eliminated by grazing and does not occur in all areas of this system.
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