Results and Products

The Puget Sound Marine and Nearshore Grant Program is dedicated to funding innovative and important work throughout Puget Sound. As the results and products of our grants become available, we will be posting them here. If there is something you are looking for that is not posted on this page, it may be because the result or product is not yet final. Please check back often, as this page will be updated frequently.

Reports and Materials

Targeted Outreach to Reduce Impacts from Shore Armor in the Port Susan Marine Stewardship Area: Program Assessment Summary Report
Targeted Outreach to Reduce Impacts from Shore Armor in the Port Susan Marine Stewardship Area: Program Assessment Summary Report
This report provides a comprehensive overview and synthesis of results from program assessment activities conducted for a 2‐year outreach program which took place in the Port Susan Marine Stewardship area, which is located in portions of Snohomish and Island Counties. The project had the stated goal of reducing negative ecosystem impacts resulting from hardening of the marine shoreline (shore armor) in the Port Susan MSA.


Vessel Traffic Risk Assessment 2010 Final Report
Vessel Traffic Risk Assessment 2010 Final Report
This report describes a vessel traffic risk assessment (VTRA) conducted during 2012-2014 to analyze the risk from predicted increased vessel traffic in North Puget Sound related to expansion of the oil industry. The VTRA study area covers US/Canadian trans-boundary waters including portions of the Washington outer coast, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the approaches to and passages through the San Juan Islands, Puget Sound and Haro-Strait/Boundary Pass. The report quantifies the relative difference between present and future risk, and provides a basis for making decisions on what risk management measure would be beneficial.


Toxic Contaminants in Puget Sound’s Nearshore Biota: A Large-Scale Synoptic Survey Using Transplanted Mussels (Mytilus trossulus)
Toxic Contaminants in Puget Sound’s Nearshore Biota: A Large-Scale Synoptic Survey Using Transplanted Mussels (Mytilus trossulus)
The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, with the help of citizen science volunteers, other agencies, tribes, and non-governmental organizations, conducted the first synoptic, Puget Sound-wide assessment of toxic contaminants in nearshore biota. Native mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were used in this study as indicators of the degree of contamination of nearshore habitats. Relatively uncontaminated mussels were transplanted from an aquaculture source to 108 locations along the Salish Sea shoreline. Three biological endpoints were determined (mortality, growth and condition index) and the concentration of several major contaminant classes in mussels was measured.


2010 Puget Sound Pressures Assessment
Puget Sound Pressures Assessment
The Puget Sound Pressures Assessment, (PSPA), is an effort to better understand the pressures on the Sound’s freshwater, marine-nearshore, and terrestrial resources and identify the critical ecosystem vulnerabilities that should be addressed to ensure sustainable long-term protection and recovery. The 2014 PSPA involved a systematic, expert-based, evaluation of the potential impact of assessment stressors on assessment endpoints. Information was gathered through expert elicitation using an on-line interface and small-group refinement events, and through targeted GIS and other analysis. The Appendices and other information can be found at: https://sites.google.com/site/pressureassessment/home


Spatial Evaluation of the Proximity of Outfalls and Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Greater Puget Sound
Spatial Evaluation of the Proximity of Outfalls and Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Greater Puget Sound
The Washington State Department of Natural Resources studied the locations where outfalls discharge in close proximity to eelgrass beds to identify areas of greatest potential impacts. The objective the study was to characterize previously published nutrient loading sources and assess their proximity to known eelgrass beds in an effort to identify areas where anthropogenic inputs may affect eelgrass in Puget Sound.


Implementing Shoreline Protections: Practical Guides Addressing Protection of Puget Sound Shorelines
These guides are designed for local government staff, and agency staff, with a focus on cost-effective tools. Topics range from incentives for shoreline landowners to compliance and enforcement of regulations.

The WRIA 9 Marine Shoreline Monitoring and Compliance Project
For this project, King County conducted surveys of 92 miles of shoreline from Seattle to Federal Way, and on Vashon-Maury Island, to assess the change in shoreline armoring and other shoreline infrastructure since a previous survey in 2005. A major finding of this project is that more new shoreline armoring has been built since 2005 than has been removed, and that some shoreline activities seem to be poorly permitted.

Eelgrass Restoration in Puget Sound: Development and Testing of Tools for Optimizing Site Selection
The restoration of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as a critical ecosystem component and indicator of environmental health, is a high priority in Washington State’s Puget Sound, where the goal is to increase the current eelgrass coverage by 20 percent (i.e., 4,000 ha) by 2020. In a region as large and complex as Puget Sound, locating areas to restore eelgrass effectively and efficiently is a challenge. We developed a set of tools to identify and test potential restoration sites, as well as to identify stressors affecting eelgrass and other barriers to its recovery.

Geographic Expansion of the Puget Sound Seabird Survey and Volunteer Training for Early On-Scene Reconnaissance
The Puget Sound Seabird Survey (PSSS) is a monthly shore-based survey of seabirds in Puget Sound. The intent of the survey is to determine the status and trends of marine birds over time and area. This project expanded the PSSS geographically by establishing survey sites along the southern coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, along the west coast of Whidbey Island, and in parts of Admiralty Inlet. This expansion is in response to the identified need to improve community oil spill preparedness in regions most at-risk

Incentives Toolkit for Shoreline Restoration
To assist and inform the use of incentives for stewardship, better knowledge on incentives is required and a reliable basis for assessing performance needs to be developed. With this in mind Futurewise, with funding support from Washington State Department of Natural Resources and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, developed this practical guide and incentives toolkit for shoreline landowners to assist with and to increase the use of incentives in protecting and restoring shoreline ecosystems.

Biofouling Assessment
The Puget Sound region has a long history of marine and estuarine species invasions that have contributed to ecological alterations of the region’s ecosystem over centuries of human influence. Biofouling, which is the accumulation of algae and invertebrates on submerged surfaces such as the hulls of ships, is a chief transport vector for nonindigenous species (NIS). This report examines the issue of marine and estuarine invasions by biofouling-mediated NIS in Puget Sound.

The Marine Shoreline Design Guidelines
The Marine Shoreline Design Guidelines
The Marine Shoreline Design Guidelines (MSDG) were developed in collaboration between WDFW and the Aquatic Habitat Guidelines to provide a framework for shoreline site assessment, determine the need for shore protection, and provide technical guidance on the technique that best suits the conditions at a given site.

Nature’s Value in Clallam County: Policy Implications of the Economic Benefits of Feeder Bluffs and 12 Other Ecosystems
Nature’s Value in Clallam County: Policy Implications of the Economic Benefits of Feeder Bluffs and 12 Other Ecosystems
This analysis by Earth Economics contributes vital information to better understand the economic context of ecosystem services in Clallam County, and the implications for project planning and decision-making.

Puget Sound Feeder Bluff Maps
Puget Sound Feeder Bluff Maps
The Department of Ecology and Coastal Geologic Services have completed the mapping of feeder bluffs throughout Puget Sound, and these maps describe the character and distribution of feeder bluffs, along with other coastal landforms, for all of Puget Sound’s approximately 2500 miles of shoreline.


A Social Marketing Strategy for Armoring Behavior on Puget Sound
A Social Marketing Strategy to Reduce Armoring Behavior on Puget Sound
This project, based on the social marketing research of Colehour + Cohen, focuses on realistic approaches that use research-based incentives to overcome the specific barriers to reducing shore armor among key target audience segments. The following materials are a selection of the products and reports from this project; for additional information, please contact the grant program at: PSMarineNSGrants@dfw.wa.gov
Primary Documents
  Social Marketing Approach and Campaign Implementation Tools for the Reduction of Puget Sound Shoreline Armor (5A)
Social Marketing How-To Guide (5D)
  Research Synthesis and Audience Map (4F)
Final Project Report
Presentation: A Social Marketing Strategy for Armoring Behavior on Puget Sound

Supporting Documents

Target audiences and behaviors
  Puget Sound Shoreline Parcel Segmentation Report (2A)
Puget Sound Shoreline Parcel Owner Characteristics (2B)
Identifying Behaviors and Mapping Decisions to Reduce Shoreline Armor (3)
Barriers and motivations
Evaluating Barriers and Motivators for Shoreline Armor (4A)
Barriers and Motivations Literature Review (4C)
Survey of Shoreline Property Owners (4D)
Barriers and Motivators Prioritization (4E)
Shoreline Armor Focus Group Findings (5B)
Performance evaluation
Performance Evaluation Plan (6)