WAC 220-12-090 Classification - Nonnative aquatic animal species.

(1) Prohibited aquatic animal species. RCW 77.12.020

These species are considered by the commission to have a high risk of becoming an invasive species and may not be possessed, imported, purchased, sold, propagated, transported, or released into state waters except as provided in RCW 77.15.253. The unlawful use of a prohibited aquatic animal species is a gross misdemeanor. A second violation within five years is a class C felony.

The following species are classified as prohibited animal species:


(i) In the family Hylidae: Cricket frog, in the genus Hyla species in the group Aborea including:

Hyla annectans Assam Tree frog
Hyla arborea Common Tree frog
Hyla chinensis Chinese Tree frog
Hyla hallowellii Hallowell's Tree frog
Hyla immaculata  
Hyla japonica Japanese Tree frog
Hyla meridionalis Mediterranean Tree frog
Hyla sanchiangensis San Chiang Tree frog
Hyla simplex Emerald Green Tree frog
Hyla suweonensis Suweon Tree frog
Hyla tsinlingensis Shensi Tree frog
Hyla ussuriensis Japanese Tree toad
Hyla zhaopingensis Zhaoping Treefrog

(ii) In the family Pelobatidae, spadefoots. With the exception of the native species: Spea intermontana, the great basin spadefoot.

Pelobates cultripes Western Spadefoot toad
Pelobates fuscus Common spadefoot toad
Pelobates syriacus Eastern spadefoot toad
Pelobates varaldii Varaldi's Spadefoot toad
Scaphiopus couchii Couchis Spadefoot toad
Scaphiopus holbrookii Eastern spadefoot toad
Scaphiopus hurterii Hurter's Spadefoot toad
Spea bombifrons Plains spadefoot toad
Spea hammondii Western Spadefoot toad
Spea hurterii (Scaphiopus hurteri above) Hurter's Spadefoot toad
Spea multiplicata Mexican spadefoot toad

With the exception of the native species: Spea intermontana, the great basin spadefoot.

(iii) In the family Pipidae: African clawed frog, all members of the genera Silurana, and Xenopus.


Silurana tropicalis Tropical Clawed frog
Xenopus laevis    African Clawed frog

(iv) In the family Ranidae:

(A) Bull frog, Rana catesbeiana.

Rana catesbeiana   Bullfrog

(B) Holoarctic brown frogs and Paleartic green frogs of the genus Rana, including the following:

Rana altaica Siberian frog
Rana amurensis Siberian wood frog
Rana aragonensis European Common frog
Rana arvalis Moor frog
Rana asiatica Central Asiatic frog
Rana bedriagae Levant Water frog
Rana bergeri Italian green frog
Rana cerigensis Karpathos Water frog
Rana chaochiaoensis Chaochiao brown frog
Rana chensinensis Far Eastern frog
Rana chevronta Chevron-spotted Brown frog
Rana chosenica Korean Golden frog
Rana cretensis Cretan Water frog
Rana dalmatina Agile frog
Rana demarchii  
Rana dybowskii Dybovsky's frog
Rana emelijanovi  
Rana epeirotica Epirus water frog
Rana esculenta Edible frog
Rana fukienensis Futsing Hsien frog
Rana graeca Graecian frog
Rana grafi  
Rana hispanica Italian Hybrid frog
Rana honnorati  
Rana huanrenensis  
Rana hubeiensis Hubei frog
Rana iberica Iberian frog
Rana italica Italian Stream frog
Rana japonica Japanese brown frog
Rana latastei Italian Agile frog
Rana lateralis Kokarit frog
Rana lessonae Pool frog
Rana macrocnemis Iranian Long-Legged frog
Rana nigrolineata Wood frog
Rana nigromaculata Dark-Spotted frog
Rana okinavana Ryukyu Brown frog
Rana omeimontis  
Rana ornativentris Montane Brown frog
Rana perezi Perezs frog
Rana pirica Ezo Brown frog
Rana plancyi Lined leopard frog
Rana porosa Tokyo Daruma pond frog
Rana pyrenaica Pyrenean frog
Rana ridibunda Marsh frog
Rana rugosa Wrinkled frog
Rana saharica Sahara frog
Rana sakuraii Stream Brown frog
Rana shqiperica Albanian Pool frog
Rana shuchinae Sichuan frog
Rana tagoi Tago frog
Rana tenggerensis Chinese rock frog
Rana terentievi Terentjev's frog
Rana tientaiensis Tiantai frog
Rana tsushimensis Tsushima Brown frog
Rana zhengi  
Rana zhenhaiensis  

(v) In the family Ambystomatidae: Mole salamanders. In the genus Ambystoma. Except for the native species Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium, Western tiger salamander, and Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum, Tiger salamander.

Ambystoma californiense California Tiger salamander
Ambystoma laterale Blue-spotted salamander
Ambystoma opacum Marbled salamander
Ambystoma rosaceum  
Ambystoma tigrinum (except: A. tigrinum mavortium; A. tigrinum melanostictum) Tiger salamander

(vi) In the family Amphiumidae one, two, and three toed salamanders or congo eels: All members of the genus Amphiuma.


Amphiuma tridactylum Three-toed Amphiuma

(vii) In the family Cryptobranchidae: Giant salamanders and hellbenders, all members of the genera Andrias and Cryptobranchus.


Andrias davidianus Chinese Giant salamander
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Hellbender

(viii) In the family Dicamptodontidae, American giant salamander, all members of the genus Dicamptodon, except for the native species: Dicamptodon tenebrosus, Pacific giant salamander, and Dicamptodon copei, Cope's giant salamander.


Dicamptodon aterrimus Idaho giant salamander
Dicamptodon ensatus (Not: D. tenebrosus; D. copei) California Giant salamander

(ix) In the family Hynobiidae: Mountain salamanders, all members of the genera Batrachuperus, Hynobius, Liua, Onychodactylus, Pachyhynobius, Pseudohynobius, Ranodon, Salamandrella.


Batrachuperus gorganensis Gorgan salamander
Batrachuperus mustersi Paghman Mountain salamander
Batrachuperus persicus Persia Mountain salamander
Batrachuperus pinchonii Western Chinese Mountain salamander
Batrachuperus taibaiensis Taibai Stream salamander
Hynobius boulengeri Boulenger's Oriental salamander
Hynobius chinensis Chinese salamander
Hynobius dunni Dunn's Oriental salamander
Hynobius kimurae Hynobiidae
Hynobius leechii Northeastern China Hynobiid salamander
Hynobius lichenatus Aomori salamander
Hynobius nebulosus Clouded salamander
Hynobius okiensis Oki salamander
Hynobius retardatus Noboribetsu salamander
Liua shihi Wushan salamander
Onychodactylus fischeri Long-Tailed Clawed salamander
Onychodactylus japonicus Japanese Clawed salamander
Pachyhynobius shangchengensis Shangcheng Stout salamander
Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus Yellow-spotted salamander
Pseudohynobius shuichengensis Shiucheng salamander
Pseudohynobius tsinpaensis Tsinpa salamander
Ranodon sibiricus Siberian salamander
Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski's salamander

(xii) In the family Proteidae, mudpuppies, all members of the genus Necturus and Proteus.


Necturus beyeri Gulf Coast Waterdog
Proteus anguinus Olm

(xiii) In the family Salamandridae: Newts, all members of the genera Chioglossa; Eichinotriton (mountain newts); Euproctus (European mt. Salamander); Neurergus (Kurdistan newts); Notophthalmus (red-spotted newts); Pachytriton (Chinese newts); Paramesotriton (warty newts); Salamandrina (speckled salamander); Taricha except for the native species Taricha granulosa granulosa the Northern rough-skinned newt, and Triturus (alpine newts).


Chioglossa lusitanica Gold Striped salamander
Echinotriton andersoni Anderson's Salamander
Euproctus asper Pyrenean Brook salamander
Neurergus crocatus Lake Urmia newt
Neurergus kaiseri Luristan newt
Neurergus microspilotus Kurdistan newt
Neurergus strauchii strauchii Strauch's Spotted newt
Notophthalmus meridionalis Black Spotted newt
Notophthalmus perstriatus Striped newt
Notophthalmus viridescens Eastern newt
Pachytriton brevipes Spotted Paddle Tail newt
Pachytriton labiatus Spotless Paddle Tail newt
Paramesotriton caudopunctatus Spot-Tailed Warty newt
Paramesotriton chinensis Chinese Warty newt
Paramesotriton deloustali Tam Dao Warty newt
Paramesotriton hongkongensis Hong Kong Warty newt
Salamandrina terdigitata Spectacled salamander
Taricha rivularis Red-bellied newt
Taricha torosa Sierra newt
Triturus boscai Bosca's newt
Triturus carnifex Italian Crested newt
Triturus cristatus Great Crested newt
Triturus dobrogicus Danube Crested newt
Triturus helveticus helveticus Palmate newt
Triturus italicus Italian newt
Triturus karelinii Southern Crested newt
Triturus marmoratus marmoratus Marbeled newt
Triturus montandoni Carpathian newt
Triturus vittatus ophryticus Banded newt
Triturus vulgaris lantzi Smooth newt

(xiv) In the family Sirenidae, sirens, all species of the genera Pseudobranchus and Siren.


Pseudobranchus striatus striatus Northern Dwarf siren
Siren intermedia intermedia Eastern Lesser siren
Siren lacertina Greater siren


(i) In the family Chelydridae, snapping turtles, all species.


Chelydra serpentina Common snapping turtle
Macrochelys temminckii Alligator snapping turtle

(ii) In the family Emydidae:

(A) Chinese pond turtles, all members of the genus Chinemys.


Chinemys nigricans   Kwangtung River turtle
Chinemys reevesii   Reeve's turtle
Chinemys reevesii megalocephala   Chinese Broad-headed turtle

(B) Pond turtles, all members of the genus Clemmys.


Clemmys gutatta   Spotted turtle
Clemmys insculpta   Wood turtle
Clemmys muhlenbergii   Bog turtle

(C) Eurpean pond turtle, Emys orbicularis.

Emys orbicularis   European Pond Turtle

(D) Asian pond turtle, all members of the genus Mauremys.


Mauremys annamensis   Annam Pond turtle
Mauremys caspica   Caspian Pond turtle
Mauremys iversoni Iverson's Pond turtle
Mauremys japonica   Japanese Pond turtle
Mauremys leprosa   Mediterranean Pond turtle
Mauremys mutica    Asian Yellow Pond turtle
Mauremys mutica kami    Ryukyu Yellow Pond turtle
Mauremys pritchardi   Pritchard's Pond turtle

(iii) In the family Trionychidae, American soft shell turtles, all members of the genus Apalone.


Apalone ferox   Florida Softshell turtle
Apalone mutica mutica Smooth Softshell turtle
Apalone spinifer   Spiny Softshell turtle


(i) Family Cercopagidae:

(A) Fish hook water flea, Cercopagis pengoi.

Cercopagis pengoi   Fishhook waterflea

(B) Spiny water flea, Bythotrephes cederstroemi.

Bythotrephes cederstroemi   Spiny waterflea

(ii) Family Grapsidae: Mitten crabs: All members of the genus Eriocheir.


Eriocheir sinensis   Chinese mitten crab

(iii) Family Cambaridae: Crayfish: All genera.


Orconectes neglectus Ringed crayfish
Orconectes rusticus   Rusty crayfish
Orconectes virilus Virile crayfish
Procambarus clarkii   Red swamp crawfish

(iv) Family Parastacidae: Crayfish: All genera except Engaeus, and except the species Cherax quadricarninatus, Cherax papuanus, and Cherax tenuimanus.


Astacopis gouldi Giant Tasmanian crayfish
Astacopis tricornus Spiny crayfish
Cherax albidus Yabby
Cherax depressus Orange fingered Yabby
Cherax destructor Orange fingered Yabby
Cherax preissii Yabby
Cherax rotundus setotus Yabby
Euastacus armatus Murray crayfish
Euastacus bispinosis Glenelg crayfish
Euastacus kershawi Gippsland crayfish
Euastacus setosus Spiny crayfish
Euastacus spinifer Spiny crayfish
Euastacus sulcatus Lamington Spiny crayfish
Euastacus valentulus Spiny crayfish
Euastacus woriwuru Spiny crayfish
Euastacus yarraensis Yarra crayfish
Geocharax falcata Land Yabby
Parastacoides tasmanicus tasmanicus Land Yabby

(v) Family Portunidae: European green crab, Carcinus maenas.

Carcinus maenas   European Green crab

(vi) Family Spheromatidae: Burrowing isopod, Sphaeromas quoyanum.

Sphaeroma quoyanum Burrowing isopod

(d) FISH:

(i) Family Amiidae: Bowfin, grinnel, or mudfish, Amia calva.


Amia calva   Bowfin, Grinnel, or Mudfish

(ii) Family Channidae: China fish, snakeheads: All members of the genus Channa.


Channa argus   Northern snakehead

(iii) Family Characidae: Piranha or caribe: All members of the genera Pygocentrus, Rooseveltiella, and Serrasalmus.


Pygocentrus nattereri    Red-Bellied piranha
Rooseveltiella nattereri    Red piranha
Serrasalmus rhombeus   Black piranha

(iv) Family Clariidae: Walking catfish: All members of the family.


Clarias batrachus    Walking catfish
Clarias meladerma   Blackskin catfish

(v) Family Cyprinidae:

(A) Fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

Pimephales promelas   Fathead minnow

(B) Carp, Bighead, Hypopthalmichthys nobilis

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Bighead carp

(C) Carp, Black, Mylopharyngodon piceus

Mylopharyngodon piceus Black carp

(D) Carp, Grass (in the diploid form), Ctenopharyngodon idella

Ctenopharyngodon idella   Grass carp

(E) Carp, Silver, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Silver carp

(F) Ide, silver orfe or golden orfe, Leuciscus idus

Leuciscus idus - Golden   Golden Orfe
Leuciscus idus - Silver   Silver Orfe

(G) Rudd, Scardinius erythropthalmus

Scardinius erythropthalmus   Rudd

(vi) Family Gobiidae: Round goby, Neogobius melanostomus

Neogobius melanostomus   Round goby

(vii) Family Escocidae: Northern pikes: Esox lucius.

Esox lucius   Northern pike

(viii) Family Lepisosteidae: Gar-pikes: All members of the family.

Atractosteus spatula   Alligator Gar
Lepisosteus osseus   Longnose Gar


Family Myocastoridae: Nutria, Myocastor coypu.

Myocastor coypu.   Nutria


(i) Family Dreissenidae: Zebra mussels: All members of the genus Dreissena and all species known as quagga.


Dreissena bugensis    Quagga mussel
Dreissena polymorpha   Zebra mussel

(ii) Family Gastropoda: New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

Potamopyrgus antipodarum.   New Zealand mudsnail

(2) Regulated aquatic animal species.

These species are considered by the commission to have some beneficial use along with a moderate, but manageable risk of becoming an invasive species, and may not be released into state waters, except as provided in RCW 77.16.253. These species include commercial aquaculture species, and species listed by the commission as food fish or game fish.

The following species are classified as regulated aquatic animal species:


All nonnative crustaceans classified as shellfish

(WAC 246-282-010 Definitions: (24) "Shellfish" means all varieties of fresh or fresh-frozen oysters, clams, scallops or mussels, either shucked or in the shell, and all fresh or fresh-frozen edible products thereof.)


Alpheus euphrosyne Green Snapping shrimp
Biffarius arenosus Sand Ghost shrimp
Cyclograpsus granulosus Rough Shore crab
Gammarella berringar  
Jasus novaehollandiae Southern Rock lobster
Mesanthura astelia Patterned Anthurid
Nebalia sp Sea flea
Paguristes frontalis Common Hermit crab
Petrocheles australiensis Australian Porcelain crab
Tetraclitella purpurascens  

(b) FISH

(i) All nonnative fish classified as food fish and game fish.

WAC 220-110-020 Definitions: (33) "Food fish" means those species of the classes Osteichthyes, Agnatha, and Chondrichthyes that shall not be fished for except as authorized by rule of the director of the department of fish and wildlife.

(35) "Game fish" means those species of the class Osteichthyes that shall not be fished for except as authorized by rule of the fish and wildlife commission.

(ii) Family Cichlidae: Tilapia: All members of the genera Tilapia, Oneochromis, and Sartheradon.


Oreochromis niloticus   Nile tilapia
Sarotherodon melanotheron    Black Chin tilapia

(iii) Family Clupeidae: Alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus.

Alosa pseudoharengus   Alewife

(iv) Family Cyprinidae:

(A) Common carp, koi, Cyprinus carpio.

Cyprinus carpio carpio   Common carp

(B) Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

Carassius auratus   Wild Goldfish

(C) Tench, Tinca tinca.

Tinca tinca   Tench

(D) Grass carp (in the triploid form), Ctenopharyngodon idella.

Ctenopharyngodon idella - Tripliod   Triploid Grass Carp

(v) Family Poecilidae: Mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis.

Gambusia affinis   Mosquito fish


(i) All nonnative molluscs classified as shellfish.

(ii) Family Psammobiidae: Mahogany clam or purple varnish clam, Nuttalia obscurata.

Nuttalia obscurata   Purple varnish clam,varnish clam, or dark mahogany clam

(3) Unlisted Invasive Species

Species that are not on the Prohibited or Regulated specie lists but are of great concern and deemed highly threatening.

Botrylloides violaceus   Chain tunicate
Botryllus schlosseri   Golden star tunicate
Ciona intestinalis   Vase tunicate
Ciona savignyi   Solitary sea squirt
Didemnum vexillum   Colonial sea squirt
Molgula manhattensis   Sea grape tunicate
Salmo salar   Atlantic Salmon
Styela clava   Clubbed Tunicate