Sensitivity to climate change
Columbia clubtail sensitivity is driven by increased water and air temperatures, and altered flow regimes (summer low flows and winter flooding and sediment or nutrient loading from upstream flooding and erosion). CC phenology is highly sensitive to changes in water and air temperature: affecting the timing of and duration of adult emergence. CC is vulnerable due to its use of a narrow range of substrate conditions within restricted and hydrologically sensitive habitat (i.e. slow-moving, open sandy to muddy, rivers with gravelly rapids located within xeric sagebrush-riparian woodland), and low-dispersal. Eggs are laid in water, and after hatching, larvae burrow and overwinter in river mud. Water temperature influences emergence timing, while warmer air temperatures influence adult flight times, affecting foraging and energy demands. Reduced summer streamflow can exacerbate increasing water temperatures and effects on clubtail aquatic eggs and larvae. In addition, lower streamflows may strand eggs or larvae, causing mortality via desiccation. Increased winter flooding that enhances scour and/or that causes significant sedimentation may reduce larval survival. Sediment loading from upstream flooding may inundate and smother eggs and larvae.
Exposure to climate change
- Increased air and water temperatures
- Altered flow regimes (low summer flows and increased winter flooding) >Drought
- Sediment or nutrient loading from upstream flooding and erosion