Publication number: 2007-03
Author(s): Dan Penttila
Forage fishes are small, schooling fishes that are key prey items for larger predatory fish and wildlife in a marine food web. In Puget Sound, forage fish species occupy every marine and estuarine nearshore habitat. Nearshore habitats are of special concern, because many species use them for spawning. This report focus on three species that commonly occur within the nearshore zone of Pacific Northwest beaches: Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus), Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus). Each species has particular habitat requirements for spawning; for example, a relatively restricted sediment grain size, particular tidal heights, or specific vegetation types.
Penttila, D. 2007. Marine Forage Fishes in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-03. Published by Seattle District, U.W. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington.