Shellfish Import and Transfer permitting requirements are intended to reduce risk associated with introducing and spreading shellfish disease agents and harmful aquatic pest organisms. As specified in WACs 220-340-050 and 220-340-150 , it is unlawful to import from out of state or transfer shellfish within Washington State without first obtaining a Washington state Shellfish Import or Shellfish Transfer Permit. Once a person submits a complete shellfish import or shellfish transfer permit application, unless further information is required from the applicant, the department will submit transfer and import permit applications to a required 20 working day tribal review, prior to being issued. "Shellfish" are defined as all non-insect aquatic invertebrates.
Cultivation of aquatic products: The cultivation of any aquatic products, including shellfish and seaweed, requires an Aquatic Farm Registration. Registration information can be found via WDFW Licensing. Aquatic Farmers must also maintain and report farm production records to WDFW Licensing. Production reports must contain the information described here and more information can be found in WAC Chapter 220-370.
Commercial harvest of intertidal wildstock clams and oysters from non-state lands requires an Emerging Commercial Fisheries License and Trial Commercial Fishery Permit. Information can be found in WAC 220-360-100 through 220-360-140. Also see "More information" tab below for information on Treaty rights obligations related to harvest of wildstock clams and oysters from non-state lands.
Who needs a shellfish import permit: Anyone seeking to import or possess live aquatic invertebrates from outside the state of Washington into the state. This includes but is not limited to aquatic invertebrates (other than insects) intended for aquaculture, research, public or personal display, or education. This excludes shellfish considered market-ready, intended for immediate human consumption and not intended to be placed into or to come into contact with state waters. Note that there are restrictions on importing certain species and from certain source locations.
Who needs a shellfish transfer permit: Anyone wishing to transfer shellfish, shellfish aquaculture products (such as seed, cultch, and shell), aquaculture equipment (such as vessels and vehicles) or any marine organisms adversely affecting shellfish, into or contacting state waters. This includes but is not limited to shellfish aquaculture activities like broodstock movement, wet storage, placement of cultch, placement or sale of shellfish seed; and transfer of invertebrates for research, education, monitoring, or display. This excludes shellfish that are market ready, intended for immediate human consumption, and which will not be placed into or come into contact with state waters.
Who needs a marine plant import permit: Anyone seeking to import live kelp, seaweed, or other marine plant aquaculture products destined for contact with state waters (directly or indirectly).
Marine plant transfer: It is unlawful to transfer marine plant aquaculture products between any of the following geographic areas without having first obtained a transfer permit: Columbia River; Pacific Ocean waters; Willapa Harbor; Grays Harbor; Puget Sound. No transfer permit is necessary for transfer within any of the geographic regions described above.
Applications for shellfish import and transfer permits can be found on this page. Applications are available as a Word Document (.doc) and as a PDF. Both of these formats can be filled in using a computer, saved, and e-mailed to the contacts listed below. Documents filled out electronically and sent via e-mail are preferred, but the PDF can also be printed and filled in by hand if need be. If for any reason you have trouble opening either of these forms, please contact us for assistance.
To submit a shellfish transfer or import application or for further information please contact:
360-302-3030 ex 301
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
375 Hudson Street
Port Townsend, WA 98368
The Office of Regulatory Innovation and Assistance (ORIA) has in-depth information about most environmental permits in their Regulatory Handbook. WDFW permit processing and issuing times can be found in the handbook and are also posted to ORIA's Permit Timeliness Data repository.
Shellfish import permits
Import permits from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife are required for the import of live shellfish from waters or facilities outside the State of Washington. This includes, but is not limited to, shellfish for aquaculture, research or display purposes. Shellfish which are market ready and do not come into contact with state waters do not require a permit. Some organisms or imports from certain source locations may be eligible for import into WDFW-approved quarantine only. Applications for import into quarantine facilities must be accompanied by a facility biosecurity plan, photo documentation of the facility, research plan (if research-related), and a facility site plan (unless these documents are already on file with WDFW).
Import permits will include conditions to ensure that diseases, pests and invasive species do not enter the State’s waters. Permits may be modified or revoked upon a finding of an aquatic disease or pest or upon determination of violation of the conditions of a permit. (RCW 77.15.350)
Application forms and reference materials
- Shellfish import permit application form: PDF | MS Word
- Current WDFW shellfish import requirements for aquaculture (Updated 2021-22)
- Shellfish Import Advisory Committee
|Company||Facility name||Facility location||Approved species and life stage||Approval expires||Permitting type|
|Hawaiian Shellfish||Kea'au Hatchery||Kea'au, HI||PO: seed and larvae; MC: seed||06/23/22 (PO, MC)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Hog Island Oyster Co.||Humboldt nursery||Humboldt Bay, CA||PO: seed||09/13/22 (PO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Jamestown Point Whitney Ventures||Kailua-Kona Hatchery||Kailua-Kona, HI||PO: seed and larvae; KO: seed and larvae||09/29/22 (PO, KO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Molluscan Broodstock Program (MBP)||Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center MBP hatchery||Yaquina Bay, OR||PO: seed||05/03/22 (PO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center (PACRC)||University of Hawaii PACRC hatchery||Hilo, HI||PO: seed||08/24/22 (PO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA|
|Island Scallops||Closed hatchery facility||Qualicum Beach, BC||GE: seed||Requires dedicated permit application||Requires dedicated permit application|
|Taylor Shellfish/Mariculture||Humboldt Nursery||Humboldt Bay, CA||PO: seed; KO: seed||09/13/22 (PO, KO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Taylor Shellfish||Kailua-Kona Hatchery||Kailua-Kona, HI||PO: seed; MC: seed; EO: seed||02/14/23 (PO, MC, EO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Pacific Hybreed, Inc.||Kailua-Kona Hatchery||Kailua-Kona, HI||PO: seed||06/02/22 (PO)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
|Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery||Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery||Netarts Bay, OR||KO: larvae; PO: larvae; MC: larvae||07/26/22 (KO); 01/22/23 (PO, MC)||General permit authorizing shipping to WA, receivers must receive copy of import permit|
PO=Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas); MC=Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum); KO=Kumamoto oyster (Crassostrea sikamea); GE=geoduck (Panopea generosa); MM=Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); EO=Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)
This list is intended to advise potential shellfish seed and larvae buyers for aquaculture use in Washington waters. The facilities listed above are considered currently approved by WDFW to ship live shellfish seed or larvae to Washington for aquaculture purposes, having met all of WDFW's import requirements as of the date the table was last updated. An absence of a facility from this list indicates that the facility has not met, or has not yet met (approval could be in process) all of the requirements for the current year; this list only includes seed and larvae imports. It is unlawful to import live shellfish for aquaculture purposes from facilities that have not met WDFW requirements and thus do not have a current import permit. Aquaculture includes commercial and non-commercial uses (such as shellfish gardening). It is possible that this list is not current from time to time; it is recommended that potential shellfish import applicants contact WDFW for information.
Shellfish transfer permits
Transfer permits from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife are required for the transfer of shellfish, shellfish aquaculture products (including oyster seed, cultch and shell), aquaculture equipment (including aquaculture vehicles and vessels) or any marine organisms adversely affecting shellfish. Shellfish Transfer Permits include conditions that eliminate or reduce the risk of transferring marine pests, such as oyster drills and European green crabs, from one body of water to another. Certain areas are identified as oyster drill areas (WAC 220-340-130 and 220-340-140). Transfer permit conditions document transfer vehicles, cleaning and disposal methods, inspection needs, and other preventative measures.
Application forms and reference materials
- Washington state oyster drill restricted area locations
- Washington state oyster drill restricted areas maps
- WDFW Transfer Permit Supplemental Information and Guide
Click "More information" below for information on European green crabs, Japanese oyster drills, and more.
The importation and transfer of kelp and other marine plants is regulated under:
- "Marine plant" definition: WAC 220-370-050
- WAC 220-370-220 (Marine plant aquaculture disease control)
- WAC 220-370-230 (Kelp importation—Permit required—Disease control)
The importation of kelp, other seaweeds, and any other marine plants requires an Import Permit. For the import of marine plants, please complete and submit a Shellfish Import Permit application.
There are some restrictions on the transfer of marine plants within the state. It is unlawful to transfer marine plant aquaculture products between any of the following geographic areas without having first obtained a transfer permit: Columbia River; Pacific Ocean waters; Willapa Harbor; Grays Harbor; Puget Sound. No transfer permit is necessary for transfer within any of the geographic regions described above. If a permit is required for the transfer of marine plants, please complete and submit a Shellfish Transfer Permit application.
Some organisms or imports from certain source locations may be eligible for import into WDFW-approved quarantine only. WDFW approves two types of quarantine: isolation quarantine, and terminal quarantine. Organisms imported into isolation quarantine may in some cases be eligible for upgrade and removal from quarantine. Organisms placed into terminal quarantine must remain in quarantine permanently. The type of quarantine required may depend on the organism, the source location, the intended use, and the specific risk being managed. Most quarantine situations are considered terminal quarantine. Examples of sectors utilizing quarantine include research, display (including aquariums and educational facilities), and aquaculture.
Applications for import into quarantine facilities must be accompanied by a facility biosecurity plan, photo documentation of the facility, research plan (if research-related), and a facility site plan (unless these documents are already on file with WDFW). All quarantine facilities must be approved by WDFW and come with an inspection requirement.
WDFW's biosecurity principles are to ensure that organisms and systems requiring quarantine are completely isolated from other, non-quarantine organisms and systems and critically, from state waters. The following is a partial list of items WDFW expects to be established and maintained for approvable quarantine facilities; specific requirements will depend on the facility, the organisms being held, the location, and the intended use of quarantine:
- Facility must be secure, with access limited to trained and authorized personnel (e.g. locked doors, clear and durable signage, training requirements);
- Facility must be equipped to prevent contamination (including facility water) from entering or exiting (e.g. foot baths, sealed drains, sealed floor-wall junctions, berms, treatment of effluent, cleaning protocols);
- Facility must have its own dedicated tools, equipment, and cleaning supplies which will not be used in other, non-quarantine facilities;
- Facility must have contingency plans in place in case of spill or loss of power (e.g. berms or other secondary containment, sealed drains and floor-wall junctions, cleaning protocols, back-up power, location away from state waters, emergency contact);
- Organism, packaging, and water disposal requirements;
- Staff, intern, and/or volunteer education/training;
- Reporting requirements
For more information, contact WDFW.
European green crab and oyster drills
- WDFW Aquatic Invasive Species Unit -- European green crab
- Washington SeaGrant Crab Team
- European green crab identification, Washington SeaGrant
- European green crab identification, Washington Invasive Species Council
- Japanese oyster drill species page
Shellfish disease information
WDFW shellfish disease control advisory
Treaty rights information
Frequently Asked Questions
Can I import live crawfish (crayfish) from out of state or outside the U.S. for my upcoming crawfish boil? And what about crayfish as fishing bait?
No, you may not import live crayfish for consumption (such as for a crawfish boil), for use as fishing bait, or for any other purposes. Doing so would be illegal. Crayfish from outside of Washington pose an invasive species and potential disease introduction concern. The Department classifies all crayfish in the family Cambaridae and all but a few in the family Parastacidae as Prohibited level 3 species (WAC 220-640-050) as species that pose a moderate to high invasive risk (RCW 77.135.030). This includes species most likely to be available on the market--such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), white river crayfish (Procambarus zonangulus), rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), and others; these crayfish may be farmed or wild-caught and are not native to Washington. It is unlawful to introduce into the state or possess a Prohibited Level 1, 2, or 3 species, except that the department may authorize some possession of such species for certain scientific research or display uses via permit (WAC 220-640-100); WDFW will not permit the import of live crayfish species classified as Prohibited for crawfish boils. They may, however, be purchased and possessed in non-live (dead) forms for human or animal consumption--such as fully cooked, frozen, canned, preserved, and raw/fresh with head and/or internal organs removed. There are other requirements as well, described in WAC 220-340-051.
Pacificastacus leniusculus, one of Washington's native crayfish, may be available on the market and is not listed as a Prohibited species. It may be imported from out of state specifically for human consumption purposes, but may not be placed into state waters (including temporarily to keep the crawfish alive/fresh) without a permit; placing imported animals into state waters can spread harmful diseases, parasites, or other pests. Using live crayfish as fishing bait is also of concern (see below).
Bait: Using imported or non-native crayfish (either those imported from out of state or those collected from within Washington waters, as we do have some non-native species established here) for bait (dead or alive) is also unlawful. For more information on crayfish identification and harvest information, click here.
Conferring with the Department on imports or transfers of live shellfish of any kind, for any purposes, is strongly recommended.